Oral Presentation

Stem cells - A way for challenges of pulp and dentin regeneration

Dr Seyed Amir Mousavi

Assistant Professor of Endodontics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

Dental pulp tissue has the potential to regenerate dentin in response to specific stimulations. Stem cell therapy might be considered as an available method in pulp dentin regeneration. The aim of this study was an in-vivo evaluation of deciduous pulp's stem cell in pulp and dentin regeneration. In order to isolate stem cells, 1 Iranian mixed-breed 6-months dog was used. four deciduous teeth were extracted. Pulp of the teeth were isolated and exposed to type 1 collagenase enzyme. Isolated cells were cultured on Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum(FBS) and 1% antibiotic.

Polyglycolate(PGA) scaffolds were prepared and sanitized in 75% ethanol, and seeded with 4×104 stem cells. After 1 month,Twenty eight anterior and premolar teeth of that dogs underwent shallow pulpotomy. Teeth were divided to three groups. Twelve teeth transplanted with stem cell seeded scaffolds and then cavities were filled with MTA and Amalgam. Control groups consisted of twelve teeth with unseeded PGA, restored with MTA and Amalgam and four teeth with only MTA and Amalgam. Eight weeks after stem cell implantation, the dog was sacrificed and the teeth were histologically analyzed. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare inflammation, calcific barrier and hyperemia and Chi-square test to compare necrosis and Odontoblastic layer formation(=0.05). 

Although there was no significant difference between 3groups except for calcified barrier type between group 1 and 2, Dentin like matrix, collagen fibers and small vessels observed in the cavity on the amputated pulp after using stem cells. 

The results of the study suggest the possibility of pulp and dentin regeneration with stem cells in damaged teeth.

Key words: Dental pulp-capping, Pulp regeneration, Scaffold, Stem cell, Tissue engineering