Syzygium cumini activates cadherin and induces reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells
Manya Suresh, Meghana J Reddy, Ezhilarasan D*
Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, India
Oral squamous carcinoma is common in the developing countries and responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Complementary and alternative medicines provide treatments for various cancers using herbal medicine derivatives from natural products.
In this study, we evaluated the anticancer efficacy of Syzygium cumini against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-25) cells.
Cytotoxic effect of Syzygium cumini was determined by MTT assay, using different concentrations for 24 h. SCC-25 cells were treated with 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL of Syzygium cumini. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was investigated by the dichlorofluorescein fluorescent staining assay. Dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent stained SCC-25 cells were visualized under a fluorescent microscope for apoptosis related membrane damage. Phosphotidyl serine translocation was analysed by Annexin V FITC staining assay. cadherin gene and protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis respectively.
Methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini treatment caused significant cytotoxic effect in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also induced significant ROS generation and phosphotidyl serine translocation SCC-2 cells in intracellular to extracellular domain indicating membrane damage. Dual staining further confirms the membrane and DNA damage pertaining to apoptosis. Syzygium cumini significantly activated the protein and gene level expression of cadherin in OSCC cells.
The results indicate that methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini was a promising anticancer agent for SCC-25 human OSCC cell lines. However, further studies are needed to conclude its therapeutic use.
Keywords: caspase, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity